Les cours d’eau ont besoin de débits résiduels résistants au climat

Tronçon à débit résiduel dans la Seez, Weisstannental (photo : Stefan Kunz)

Les cours d’eau de la Suisse abritent une biodiversité particulièrement riche sur un espace restreint. Mais des interventions dans l’environnement, telles que les centrales hydroélectriques ou les rectifications, exercent sur cette diversité une forte pression qui est encore renforcée par les changements climatiques. C’est pourquoi il faut assurer des débits résiduels suffisants et adaptés à chaque cours d’eau, afin de permettre à ces écosystèmes de faire face aux changements climatiques. 

La transition énergétique, la guerre et une consommation d’électricité en hausse appellent à intensifier l’exploitation de la force hydraulique en Suisse. Un fait nouveau dans ce contexte est qu’il est demandé en outre d’assouplir les prescriptions légales en matière de débits résiduels.[i] D’un point de vue scientifique, nous craignons que cela ne soit au détriment des écosystèmes aquatiques et de leur biodiversité[ii], car plus de 80 % des 45'000 espèces animales et végétales connues en Suisse sont présentes dans les cours d’eau et les espaces aquatiques adjacents[iii]. De tous les pays du monde, la Suisse est aujourd’hui déjà au quatrième rang pour le nombre d’espèces de poissons disparues[iv]. Et parmi celles qui restent, 59 % figurent sur la liste rouge comme menacées ou potentiellement en danger [v]; il en va de même de 62 % des insectes aquatiques.[vi]

 

La réglementation actuelle sur les débits résiduels repose sur des bases scientifiques

Les données de référence pour déterminer les débits résiduels sont fondées sur des travaux scientifiques auxquels l’Institut fédéral suisse des sciences et technologies aquatiques (Eawag) a participé[vii]. Seule une partie d’entre elles ont été inscrites dans la loi conformément au mandat constitutionnel de 1975. On était en outre conscient que la mise en œuvre prendrait beaucoup de temps en raison des droits de concession. Or, un débit résiduel suffisant est essentiel pour que les poissons et les autres organismes aquatiques survivent dans un cours d’eau, s’y reproduisent et s’y maintiennent en communautés fonctionnelles[viii]. Dans son message sur la révision de la loi sur la protection des eaux de 1991, le Conseil fédéral a défini les débits résiduels minimaux comme étant le minimum vital pour les principales biocénoses dépendant des eaux[ix]. Même un assèchement de courte durée est catastrophique. La mort des œufs, des jeunes poissons ou des insectes aquatiques remet l’écosystème pratiquement à zéro. Lors de la recolonisation, les espèces généralistes à potentiel de propagation rapide ont un avantage. Les espèces spécialisées sont évincées[x]. On assiste à une homogénéisation toujours plus grande des communautés d’espèces aquatiques également sur le plan génétique.

 

La recherche dans le domaine de l’eau a fait de grand progrès dans le monde entier en ce qui concerne les débits résiduels. Des facteurs importants ont été identifiés, grâce auxquels une mise en œuvre moderne du concept suisse en matière de débits résiduels devient également possible[xi]. Premièrement, pour que les habitats et la diversité naturelle des communautés d’espèces y soient préservés, les ruisseaux, les rivières et les lacs doivent subir des crues périodiques qui remuent le lit du cours d’eau et entraînent le transport de sédiments, lui-même indispensable à la création d’habitats variés[xii]. Il faut deuxièmement, notamment pour de grands tronçons de cours d’eau, fixer les débits résiduels non pas schématiquement, mais en se référant à des évaluations hydrauliques, afin de garantir que les eaux aient en tout temps une profondeur et une extension suffisantes et une température propice à la vie[xiii]. Et troisièmement, l’expiration de concessions, attribuées le plus souvent pour une durée de 80 ans, doit être l’occasion de réévaluer la situation. Lorsqu’une concession est accordée, elle doit prévoir des débits résiduels qui garantissent durablement le minimum vital pour les biocénoses aquatiques.

 

Face aux changements climatiques, il faut assainir d’urgence les tronçons à débit résiduel

Il ne reste pas beaucoup de temps. L’assainissement écologique de la force hydraulique est urgent, car les changements climatiques réchauffent déjà de plus en plus les eaux et en modifient les débits[xiv]. Outre l’évitement des débits d’éclusée non naturels, le rétablissement de la continuité pour les poissons et un charriage aussi naturel que possible, cet assainissement exige l’augmentation des débits résiduels, reportée jusqu’ici. Les scientifiques peuvent contribuer à le mettre en œuvre, car la loi en vigueur permet, notamment grâce à de possibles dérogations et à l’instrument des plans de protection et d’utilisation des eaux, de trouver des solutions pour le temps présent, qui tiennent compte des changements climatiques et de l’utilisation de l’eau pour la production d’électricité. Lors de l’octroi de nouvelles concessions, les autorités compétentes devraient donc, en se fondant sur l’état actuel des connaissances scientifiques, décider rapidement de débits résiduels plus élevés et plus dynamiques là où cela s’avère nécessaire. C’est de cette manière seulement que nous aurons encore à l’avenir des écosystèmes aquatiques fonctionnels, diversifiés et résistants.

 

Box : Le régime suisse des débits résiduels

La loi sur la protection des eaux prévoit une procédure en plusieurs étapes pour garantir des débits résiduels suffisants - la Constitution et la loi disent " convenables " - en aval des dérivations d'eau. Un minimum absolu est d'abord fixé, sur la base du débit d'étiage Q347. Celui-ci doit être augmenté jusqu'à ce que certaines conditions soient remplies, comme une profondeur d'eau suffisante ou la préservation d'habitats rares (art. 31). Dans un troisième temps, l'autorité chargée de délivrer l'autorisation doit encore augmenter le débit déterminé précédemment dans le cadre d'une pesée des intérêts (art. 33). Un article spécifique (art. 32) prévoit diverses exceptions, par exemple pour les cours d'eau à faible potentiel écologique ou dans le cadre d'un plan de protection et d'utilisation à grande échelle. La procédure permet aux autorités de fixer, outre les "limites d'alarme", des débits résiduels dynamiques qui reproduisent dans une certaine mesure le régime d'écoulement naturel. Important de savoir : Toutes ces règles ne s'appliquent qu'aux nouvelles centrales ou aux nouvelles concessions. Dans de nombreux endroits, les autorités spécialisées n'ont pu décréter que de très faibles débits résiduels en raison de la longue durée des droits de concession. (ab)

 

 

Auteurs

  • Florian Altermatt est professeur extraordinaire d’écologie aquatique à l’Université de Zurich. Il dirige un groupe de recherche à l’Eawag et est président du Forum Biodiversité.
  • Ole Seehausen est professeur d’écologie aquatique et de biologie de l’évolution à l’Université de Berne. Il a, par ailleurs, dirigé à l’Eawag le département Écologie et évolution des poissons.
  • Bernhard Wehrli est professeur ordinaire de chimie aquatique à l’EPF de Zurich. Une partie de son groupe de travail mène ses activités à l’Eawag.

 

Sources

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' (96 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=211574, pid=301) uidLocal => protected112685 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected211574 (integer) _localizedUid => protected211574 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected211574 (integer)modified pid => protected301 (integer) projectsite => protected1320 (integer) uid => protected676 (integer) _localizedUid => protected676 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected676 (integer)modified pid => protected301 (integer)
publications => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (5 items) 0000000057d66585000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=22074, pid=124) originalId => protected22074 (integer) authors => protected'Callbeck,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;M.; Ehrenfels,&nbsp;B.; Baumann,&nbsp;K.&nbsp;B.&nbsp
                  ;L.; Wehrli,&nbsp;B.; Schubert,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;J.
' (123 chars) title => protected'Anoxic chlorophyll maximum enhances local organic matter remineralization an
                  d nitrogen loss in Lake Tanganyika
' (110 chars) journal => protected'Nature Communications' (21 chars) year => protected2021 (integer) volume => protected12 (integer) issue => protected'' (0 chars) startpage => protected'830 (11 pp.)' (12 chars) otherpage => protected'' (0 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'In marine and freshwater oxygen-deficient zones, the remineralization of sin
                  king organic matter from the photic zone is central to driving nitrogen loss
                  . Deep blooms of photosynthetic bacteria, which form the suboxic/anoxic chlo
                  rophyll maximum (ACM), widespread in aquatic ecosystems, may also contribute
                   to the local input of organic matter. Yet, the influence of the ACM on nitr
                  ogen and carbon cycling remains poorly understood. Using a suite of stable i
                  sotope tracer experiments, we examined the transformation of nitrogen and ca
                  rbon under an ACM (comprising of Chlorobiaceae and Synechococcales) and a no
                  n-ACM scenario in the anoxic zone of Lake Tanganyika. We find that the ACM h
                  osts a tight coupling of photo/litho-autotrophic and heterotrophic processes
                  . In particular, the ACM was a hotspot of organic matter remineralization th
                  at controlled an important supply of ammonium driving a nitrification-anammo
                  x coupling, and thereby played a key role in regulating nitrogen loss in the
                   oxygen-deficient zone.
' (1011 chars) serialnumber => protected'' (0 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/s41467-021-21115-5' (26 chars) uid => protected22074 (integer) _localizedUid => protected22074 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected22074 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d665e1000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=21188, pid=124) originalId => protected21188 (integer) authors => protected'Kleinschroth,&nbsp;F.; Winton,&nbsp;R.&nbsp;S.; Calamita,&nbsp;E.; Niggemann
                  ,&nbsp;F.; Botter,&nbsp;M.; Wehrli,&nbsp;B.; Ghazoul,&nbsp;J.
' (137 chars) title => protected'Living with floating vegetation invasions' (41 chars) journal => protected'Ambio' (5 chars) year => protected2021 (integer) volume => protected50 (integer) issue => protected'' (0 chars) startpage => protected'125' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'137' (3 chars) categories => protected'biological invasions; dams; Google earth engine; land cover change; urbaniza
                  tion; water-energy-food nexus
' (105 chars) description => protected'Invasions of water bodies by floating vegetation, including water hyacinth (
                  <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em>), are a huge global problem for fisheries, hyd
                  ropower generation, and transportation. We analyzed floating plant coverage
                  
                  
                  ly weed control, floating invasion severity is increasing. Floating plant co
                  verage correlates with expanding urban land cover in catchments, implicating
                   urban nutrient sources as plausible drivers. Floating vegetation invasions
                  have undeniable societal costs, but also provide benefits. Water hyacinths e
                  fficiently absorb nutrients from eutrophic waters, mitigating nutrient pollu
                  tion problems. When washed up on shores, plants may become compost, increasi
                  ng soil fertility. The biomass is increasingly used as a renewable biofuel.
                  We propose a more nuanced perspective on these invasions moving away from fu
                  tile eradication attempts towards an ecosystem management strategy that mini
                  mizes negative impacts while integrating potential social and environmental
                  benefits.
' (1149 chars) serialnumber => protected'0044-7447' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1007/s13280-020-01360-6' (26 chars) uid => protected21188 (integer) _localizedUid => protected21188 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected21188 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d665ee000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=21234, pid=124) originalId => protected21234 (integer) authors => protected'Mayr,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;J.; Zimmermann,&nbsp;M.; Dey,&nbsp;J.; Wehrli,&nbsp;B.; B
                  ürgmann,&nbsp;H.
' (93 chars) title => protected'Lake mixing regime selects apparent methane oxidation kinetics of the methan
                  otroph assemblage
' (93 chars) journal => protected'Biogeosciences' (14 chars) year => protected2020 (integer) volume => protected17 (integer) issue => protected'16' (2 chars) startpage => protected'4247' (4 chars) otherpage => protected'4259' (4 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'In lakes, large amounts of methane are produced in anoxic sediments. Methane
                  -oxidizing bacteria effectively convert this potent greenhouse gas into biom
                  ass and carbon dioxide. These bacteria are present throughout the water colu
                  mn, where methane concentrations can range from nanomolar to millimolar. In
                  this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanotroph assemblages in a seas
                  onally stratified freshwater lake are adapted to the contrasting methane con
                  centrations in the epi- and hypolimnion. We further hypothesized that lake o
                  verturn would change the apparent methane oxidation kinetics as more methane
                   becomes available in the epilimnion. In addition to the change in the metha
                  ne oxidation kinetics, we investigated changes in the transcription of genes
                   encoding methane monooxygenase, the enzyme responsible for the first step o
                  f methane oxidation, with metatranscriptomics. Using laboratory incubations
                  of the natural microbial communities, we show that the half-saturation const
                  ant (<em>K</em><sub>m</sub>) for methane - the methane concentration at whic
                  h half the maximum methane oxidation rate is reached - was 20 times higher i
                  n the hypolimnion than in the epilimnion during stable stratification. Durin
                  g lake overturn, however, the kinetic constants in the epi- and hypolimnion
                  converged along with a change in the transcriptionally active methanotroph a
                  ssemblage. Conventional particulate methane monooxygenase appeared to be res
                  ponsible for methane oxidation under different methane concentrations. Our r
                  esults suggest that methane availability is one important factor for creatin
                  g niches for methanotroph assemblages with well-adapted methane oxidation ki
                  netics. This rapid selection and succession of adapted lacustrine methanotro
                  ph assemblages allowed the previously reported high removal efficiency of me
                  thane transported to the epilimnion to be maintained – even under rapidly
                  changing conditions during lake overturn. Consequently, only a small fractio
                  n of methane stored in t...
' (2051 chars) serialnumber => protected'1726-4170' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.5194/bg-17-4247-2020' (23 chars) uid => protected21234 (integer) _localizedUid => protected21234 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected21234 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d665eb000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=18555, pid=124) originalId => protected18555 (integer) authors => protected'Guggenheim,&nbsp;C.; Brand,&nbsp;A.; Bürgmann,&nbsp;H.; Sigg,&nbsp;L.; Wehr
                  li,&nbsp;B.
' (87 chars) title => protected'Aerobic methane oxidation under copper scarcity in a stratified lake' (68 chars) journal => protected'Scientific Reports' (18 chars) year => protected2019 (integer) volume => protected9 (integer) issue => protected'' (0 chars) startpage => protected'4817 (11 pp.)' (13 chars) otherpage => protected'' (0 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) substantially reduce methane fluxes
                   from freshwater sediments to the atmosphere. Their metalloenzyme methane mo
                  nooxygenase (MMO) catalyses the first oxidation step converting methane to m
                  ethanol. Its most prevalent form is the copper-dependent particulate pMMO, h
                  owever, some MOB are also able to express the iron-containing, soluble sMMO
                  under conditions of copper scarcity. So far, the link between copper availab
                  ility in different forms and biological methane consumption in freshwater sy
                  stems is poorly understood. Here, we present high-resolution profiles of MOB
                   abundance and pMMO and sMMO functional genes in relation to copper, methane
                   and oxygen profiles across the oxic-anoxic boundary of a stratified lake. W
                  e show that even at low nanomolar copper concentrations, MOB species contain
                  ing the gene for pMMO expression are present at high abundance. The findings
                   highlight the importance of copper as a micronutrient for MOB species and t
                  he potential usage of copper acquisition strategies, even under conditions o
                  f abundant iron, and shed light on the spatial distribution of these microor
                  ganisms.
' (1148 chars) serialnumber => protected'2045-2322' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/s41598-019-40642-2' (26 chars) uid => protected18555 (integer) _localizedUid => protected18555 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected18555 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d665e8000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=17755, pid=124) originalId => protected17755 (integer) authors => protected'Athavale,&nbsp;R.; Pankratova,&nbsp;N.; Dinkel,&nbsp;C.; Bakker,&nbsp;E.; We
                  hrli,&nbsp;B.; Brand,&nbsp;A.
' (105 chars) title => protected'Fast potentiometric CO<sub>2</sub> sensor for high-resolution in situ measur
                  ements in fresh water systems
' (105 chars) journal => protected'Environmental Science and Technology' (36 chars) year => protected2018 (integer) volume => protected52 (integer) issue => protected'19' (2 chars) startpage => protected'11259' (5 chars) otherpage => protected'11266' (5 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'We present a new potentiometric sensor principle and a calibration protocol
                  for in situ profiling of dissolved CO<sub>2</sub> with high temporal and spa
                  tial resolution in fresh water lakes. The sensor system is based on the meas
                  urement of EMF between two solid-contact ion selective electrodes (SC-ISEs),
                   a hydrogen ion selective and a carbonate selective sensor. Since it relies
                  on SC-ISEs, it is insensitive to changes in pressure, thus suitable for in s
                  itu studies. Also, as it offers a response time (<i>t</i><sub>95%</sub>) of
                  <10 s, it allows for profiling applications at high spatial resolution. The
                  proposed optimum in situ protocol accounts for the continuous drift and chan
                  ge in offset that remains a challenge during profiling in natural waters. Th
                  e fast response resolves features that are usually missed by standard method
                  s like the classical Severinghaus CO<sub>2</sub> probe. In addition, the ins
                  ensitivity of the presented setup to dissolved sulfide allows also for measu
                  rements in anoxic zones of eutrophic systems. Highly resolved CO<sub>2</sub>
                   concentration profiles obtained by the novel and robust SC-ISE setup along
                  with the developed optimum in situ protocol allow investigating hotspots of
                  biogeochemical processes, such as mineralization and primary production in t
                  he water column and help improving estimates for CO<sub>2</sub> turnover in
                  freshwater systems.
' (1387 chars) serialnumber => protected'0013-936X' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1021/acs.est.8b02969' (23 chars) uid => protected17755 (integer) _localizedUid => protected17755 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected17755 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
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            lass=\"ng-scope ng-binding editable\" ng-bind-html=\"trustHtml(entry.text)\"
             e-name=\"text\" editable-textarea=\"entry.text\" e-form=\"rowform\">EU Mari
            e Curie research fellow, School of <a href=\"http:\/\/www.southampton.ac.uk\
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            y of Southampton<\/a>, Division of Biodiversity and Ecology, UK<\/span><\/p>
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            and Veterinary School of Hanover & Institute of Biology, University of Leide
            n"},{"date":"2001","text":"<a href=\"http:\/\/pwias.ubc.ca\/\" target=\"_bla
            nk\">Peter Wall Institut...
' (2468 chars) aboutme => protected'<p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3"> </font><span lang="EN-US" style
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            Eawag Fish Ecology and Evolution, </font></span><span lang="EN-US" style="m
            so-ansi-language: EN-US;"><font face="Calibri" size="3">Eawag Center for Eco
            logy, Evolution & Biogeochemistry (CEEB)</font></span><font face="Times New
            Roman" size="3"> </font><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US
            " style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"><font face="Calibri" size="3">Director,
            Institute of Ecology & Evolution (IEE), University of Bern </font></span><f
            ont face="Times New Roman" size="3"> </font></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm
             0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"><font face="Cali
            bri" size="3">Division Head, Aquatic Ecology & Evolution, IEE, University o
            f Bern</font></span><font face="Times New Roman" size="3"> </font></p><p
            style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-ansi-language: E
            N-US;"><font face="Calibri" size="3"> </font></span><font face="Times New R
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            ace="Calibri" size="3">I am an evolutionary ecologist. I am keen to underst
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            ations and between populations, phenotypic polymorphisms, speciation, adapt
            ive radiation, species a...
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            on genomics </p>
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            .unibe.ch\/content\/index_eng.html\" target=\"_blank\">Institute of Ecology
            & Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Bern<\/a><\/p>"}]
' (599 chars) backgroundImage => protected'' (0 chars) profileImage => protected'' (0 chars) hideProfileImage => protectedFALSE department => protectedSnowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\Categoryprototypepersistent entity (uid=7, pid=21) images => protectedSnowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=6049, pid=21) fieldname => protected'images' (6 chars) deleted => protectedNULL tablenames => protected'sys_category' (12 chars) tableLocal => protected'sys_file' (8 chars) title => protectedNULL description => protectedNULL file => protectedSnowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\Fileprototypetransient entity originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protectedNULL _localizedUid => protectedNULL _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protectedNULL pid => protectedNULL uidLocal => protected4784 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected6049 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6049 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected6049 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) abbreviation => protected'Fishec' (6 chars) departmentIsShownOnProfiles => protected1 (integer) pagelink => protected202 (integer) title => protected'Fischökologie und Evolution' (28 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) parent => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\Categoryprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=26, pid=21) uid => protected7 (integer) _localizedUid => protected7 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected7 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) role => protected'' (0 chars) identifier => protected'297eda003f677396013f67c5d71d0155' (32 chars) sociallinks => protected'https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ole_Seehausen' (50 chars) active => protected1 (integer) deletedate => protected0 (integer) expertTopics => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (4 items) 0000000057d667b2000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\ExpertTopicprototypepersistent entity (uid=50, pid=21) name => protected'Fische' (6 chars) uid => protected50 (integer) _localizedUid => protected50 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected50 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d667b5000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\ExpertTopicprototypepersistent entity (uid=57, pid=21) name => protected'Genetik' (7 chars) uid => protected57 (integer) _localizedUid => protected57 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected57 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d667be000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\ExpertTopicprototypepersistent entity (uid=99, pid=21) name => protected'Ökologie' (9 chars) uid => protected99 (integer) _localizedUid => protected99 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected99 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d66648000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Userprofiles\Domain\Model\ExpertTopicprototypepersistent entity (uid=509, pid=21) name => protected'Evolution' (9 chars) uid => protected509 (integer) _localizedUid => protected509 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected509 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) projects => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (5 items) 0000000057d667a9000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Eawagprojects\Domain\Model\Projectprototypepersistent entity (uid=353, pid=302) name => protected'Speciation and adaptive radiation' (33 chars) description => protected'We investigate the mechanisms of speciation and adaptive radiation' (66 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=6108, pid=302) uidLocal => protected4749 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected6108 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6108 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected6108 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) projectsite => protected897 (integer) uid => protected353 (integer) _localizedUid => protected353 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected353 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) 0000000057d667ad000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Eawagprojects\Domain\Model\Projectprototypepersistent entity (uid=164, pid=302) name => protected'Speciation Genomics of Alpine Whitefish' (39 chars) description => protected'Genome evolution and genomic divergence across the Swiss Alpine whitefish ra
                  diation
' (83 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=2814, pid=302) uidLocal => protected3425 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected2814 (integer) _localizedUid => protected2814 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected2814 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) projectsite => protected690 (integer) uid => protected164 (integer) _localizedUid => protected164 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected164 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer)
0000000057d66787000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Eawagprojects\Domain\Model\Projectprototypepersistent entity (uid=360, pid=302) name => protected'Adaptation to thermal gradients' (31 chars) description => protected'We investigate the ecological and genetic basis of adaptation to elevational
                   variation in rivers and depth variation in lakes
' (125 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=5981, pid=302) uidLocal => protected4753 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected5981 (integer) _localizedUid => protected5981 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected5981 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) projectsite => protected900 (integer) uid => protected360 (integer) _localizedUid => protected360 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected360 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer)
0000000057d667f1000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Eawagprojects\Domain\Model\Projectprototypepersistent entity (uid=72, pid=302) name => protected'Projet Lac - den Fischen in unseren Seen auf der Spur' (53 chars) description => protected'Fast zwei Drittel der einheimischen Fischarten sind vom Aussterben bedroht.
                  Um die aquatische Artenvielfalt und die nötigen Lebensräume zu erhalten ..
                  .
' (153 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=525, pid=302) uidLocal => protected1287 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected525 (integer) _localizedUid => protected525 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected525 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) projectsite => protected429 (integer) uid => protected72 (integer) _localizedUid => protected72 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected72 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer)
0000000057d667eb000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Eawagprojects\Domain\Model\Projectprototypepersistent entity (uid=362, pid=302) name => protected'Conservation Biology' (20 chars) description => protected'We work to combat what we consider the largest stumbling block on the way to
                   successful biodiversity management and conservation in aquatic ecosystems:
                  the lack of quantitative baseline data
' (191 chars) media => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FileReferenceprototypepersistent entity (uid=6219, pid=302) uidLocal => protected4904 (integer) originalResource => protectedNULL uid => protected6219 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6219 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected6219 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer) projectsite => protected903 (integer) uid => protected362 (integer) _localizedUid => protected362 (integer)modified _languageUid => protected0 (integer)modified _versionedUid => protected362 (integer)modified pid => protected302 (integer)
publications => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (10 items) 0000000057d6672e000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=4514, pid=124) originalId => protected4514 (integer) authors => protected'Udert,&nbsp;K.&nbsp;M.; Larsen,&nbsp;T.&nbsp;A.; Biebow,&nbsp;M.; Gujer,&nbs
                  p;W.
' (80 chars) title => protected'Urea hydrolysis and precipitation dynamics in a urine-collecting system' (71 chars) journal => protected'Water Research' (14 chars) year => protected2003 (integer) volume => protected37 (integer) issue => protected'11' (2 chars) startpage => protected'2571' (4 chars) otherpage => protected'2582' (4 chars) categories => protected'urine separation; NoMix; ureolysis; precipitation; struvite; calcium phospha
                  te
' (78 chars) description => protected'Blockages caused by inorganic precipitates are a major problem of urine-coll
                  ecting systems. The trigger of precipitation is the hydrolysis of urea by ba
                  cterial urease. While the maximum amount of precipitates, i.e. the precipita
                  tion potential, can be estimated with equilibrium calculations, little is kn
                  own about the dynamics of ureolysis and precipitation. To gain insight in th
                  ese processes, we performed batch experiments with precipitated solids and s
                  tored urine from a urine-collecting system and later simulated the results w
                  ith a computer model. We found that urease-active bacteria mainly grow in th
                  e pipes and are flushed into the collection tank. Both, bacteria and free ur
                  ease, hydrolyse urea. Only few days are necessary for complete urea depletio
                  n in the collection tank. Two experiments with precipitated solids from the
                  pipes showed that precipitation sets in soon after ureolysis has started. At
                   the end of the experiments, 11% and 24% of urea was hydrolysed while the ma
                  ss concentration of newly formed precipitates already corresponded to 87% an
                  d 97% of the precipitation potential, respectively. We could simulate ureoly
                  sis and precipitation with a computer model based on the surface dislocation
                   approach. The simulations showed that struvite and octacalcium phosphate (O
                  CP) are the precipitating minerals. While struvite precipitates already at l
                  ow supersaturation, OCP precipitation starts not until a high level of super
                  saturation is reached. Since measurements and computer simulations show that
                   hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the final calcium phosphate mineral in urine soluti
                  ons, OCP is only a precursor phase which slowly transforms into HAP.
' (1664 chars) serialnumber => protected'0043-1354' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00065-4' (29 chars) uid => protected4514 (integer) _localizedUid => protected4514 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected4514 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66721000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=7578, pid=124) originalId => protected7578 (integer) authors => protected'Seehausen,&nbsp;O.; Butlin,&nbsp;R.&nbsp;K.; Keller,&nbsp;I.; Wagner,&nbsp;C
                  .&nbsp;E.; Boughman,&nbsp;J.&nbsp;W.; Hohenlohe,&nbsp;P.&nbsp;A.; Peichel,&n
                  bsp;C.&nbsp;L.; Saetre,&nbsp;G.-P.; Bank,&nbsp;C.; Brännström,&nbsp;Å.; B
                  relsford,&nbsp;A.; Clarkson,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;S.; Eroukhmanoff,&nbsp;F.; Feder,&
                  nbsp;J.&nbsp;L.; Fischer,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;C.; Foote,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;D.; Franchini
                  ,&nbsp;P.; Jiggins,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;D.; Jones,&nbsp;F.&nbsp;C.; Lindholm,&nbsp;
                  A.&nbsp;K.; Lucek,&nbsp;K.; Maan,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;E.; Marques,&nbsp;D.&nbsp;A.;
                   Martin,&nbsp;S.&nbsp;H.; Matthews,&nbsp;B.; Meier,&nbsp;J.&nbsp;I.; Möst,&
                  nbsp;M.; Nachman,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;W.; Nonaka,&nbsp;E.; Rennison,&nbsp;D.&nbsp;J
                  .; Schwarzer,&nbsp;J.; Watson,&nbsp;E.&nbsp;T.; Westram,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;M.; Wi
                  dmer,&nbsp;A.
' (773 chars) title => protected'Genomics and the origin of species' (34 chars) journal => protected'Nature Reviews Genetics' (23 chars) year => protected2014 (integer) volume => protected15 (integer) issue => protected'' (0 chars) startpage => protected'176' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'192' (3 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'Speciation is a fundamental evolutionary process, the knowledge of which is
                  crucial for understanding the origins of biodiversity. Genomic approaches ar
                  e an increasingly important aspect of this research field. We review current
                   understanding of genome-wide effects of accumulating reproductive isolation
                   and of genomic properties that influence the process of speciation. Buildin
                  g on this work, we identify emergent trends and gaps in our understanding, p
                  ropose new approaches to more fully integrate genomics into speciation resea
                  rch, translate speciation theory into hypotheses that are testable using gen
                  omic tools and provide an integrative definition of the field of speciation
                  genomics.
' (693 chars) serialnumber => protected'1471-0056' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/nrg3644' (15 chars) uid => protected7578 (integer) _localizedUid => protected7578 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected7578 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d6672a000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=7832, pid=124) originalId => protected7832 (integer) authors => protected'Seehausen,&nbsp;O.; Wagner,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;E.' (43 chars) title => protected'Speciation in freshwater fishes' (31 chars) journal => protected'Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics' (52 chars) year => protected2014 (integer) volume => protected45 (integer) issue => protected'' (0 chars) startpage => protected'621' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'651' (3 chars) categories => protected'adaptive radiation; by-product speciation; ecological speciation; reinforcem
                  ent; species diversity; sympatric speciation
' (120 chars) description => protected'The extraordinary species richness of freshwater fishes has attracted much r
                  esearch on mechanisms and modes of speciation. We here review research on sp
                  eciation in freshwater fishes in light of speciation theory, and place this
                  in a context of broad-scale diversity patterns in freshwater fishes. We disc
                  uss several major repeated themes in freshwater fish speciation and the spec
                  iation mechanisms they are frequently associated with. These include transit
                  ions between marine and freshwater habitats, transitions between discrete fr
                  eshwater habitats, and ecological transitions within habitats, as well as sp
                  eciation without distinct niche shifts. Major research directions in the yea
                  rs to come include understanding the transition from extrinsic environment-d
                  ependent to intrinsic reproductive isolation and its influences on species p
                  ersistence and understanding the extrinsic and intrinsic constraints to spec
                  iation and how these relate to broad-scale diversification patterns through
                  time.
' (993 chars) serialnumber => protected'1543-592X' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-120213-091818' (37 chars) uid => protected7832 (integer) _localizedUid => protected7832 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected7832 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66724000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=9049, pid=124) originalId => protected9049 (integer) authors => protected'Wagner,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;E.; Harmon,&nbsp;L.&nbsp;J.; Seehausen,&nbsp;O.' (68 chars) title => protected'Cichlid species-area relationships are shaped by adaptive radiations that sc
                  ale with area
' (89 chars) journal => protected'Ecology Letters' (15 chars) year => protected2014 (integer) volume => protected17 (integer) issue => protected'1' (1 chars) startpage => protected'583' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'592' (3 chars) categories => protected'adaptive radiation; cichlid; diversity-dependent diversification; ecological
                   limits; island biogeography; species-area relationship
' (131 chars) description => protected'A positive relationship between species richness and island size is thought
                  to emerge from an equilibrium between immigration and extinction rates, but
                  the influence of species diversification on the form of this relationship is
                   poorly understood. Here, we show that within-lake adaptive radiation strong
                  ly modifies the species-area relationship for African cichlid fishes. The to
                  tal number of species derived from <I>in situ</I> speciation increases with
                  lake size, resulting in faunas orders of magnitude higher in species richnes
                  s than faunas assembled by immigration alone. Multivariate models provide ev
                  idence for added influence of lake depth on the species-area relationship. D
                  iversity of clades representing within-lake radiations show responses to lak
                  e area, depth and energy consistent with limitation by these factors, sugges
                  ting that ecological factors influence the species richness of radiating cla
                  des within these ecosystems. Together, these processes produce lake fish fau
                  nas with highly variable composition, but with diversities that are well pre
                  dicted by environmental variables.
' (1098 chars) serialnumber => protected'1461-023X' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1111/ele.12260' (17 chars) uid => protected9049 (integer) _localizedUid => protected9049 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected9049 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66726000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=6923, pid=124) originalId => protected6923 (integer) authors => protected'Vonlanthen,&nbsp;P.; Bittner,&nbsp;D.; Hudson,&nbsp;A.&nbsp;G.; Young,&nbsp;
                  K.&nbsp;A.; Müller,&nbsp;R.; Lundsgaard-Hansen,&nbsp;B.; Roy,&nbsp;D.; Di P
                  iazza,&nbsp;S.; Largiader,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;R.; Seehausen,&nbsp;O.
' (214 chars) title => protected'Eutrophication causes speciation reversal in whitefish adaptive radiations' (74 chars) journal => protected'Nature' (6 chars) year => protected2012 (integer) volume => protected482 (integer) issue => protected'7385' (4 chars) startpage => protected'357' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'362' (3 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'Species diversity can be lost through two different but potentially interact
                  ing extinction processes: demographic decline and speciation reversal throug
                  h introgressive hybridization. To investigate the relative contribution of t
                  hese processes, we analysed historical and contemporary data of replicate wh
                  itefish radiations from 17 pre-alpine European lakes and reconstructed chang
                  es in genetic species differentiation through time using historical samples.
                   Here we provide evidence that species diversity evolved in response to ecol
                  ogical opportunity, and that eutrophication, by diminishing this opportunity
                  , has driven extinctions through speciation reversal and demographic decline
                  . Across the radiations, the magnitude of eutrophication explains the patter
                  n of species loss and levels of genetic and functional distinctiveness among
                   remaining species. We argue that extinction by speciation reversal may be m
                  ore widespread than currently appreciated. Preventing such extinctions will
                  require that conservation efforts not only target existing species but ident
                  ify and protect the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate and
                  maintain species.
' (1157 chars) serialnumber => protected'0028-0836' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/nature10824' (19 chars) uid => protected6923 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6923 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected6923 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66711000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=6949, pid=124) originalId => protected6949 (integer) authors => protected'Wagner,&nbsp;C.&nbsp;E.; Harmon,&nbsp;L.&nbsp;J.; Seehausen,&nbsp;O.' (68 chars) title => protected'Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiat
                  ion
' (79 chars) journal => protected'Nature' (6 chars) year => protected2012 (integer) volume => protected487 (integer) issue => protected'7407' (4 chars) startpage => protected'366' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'369' (3 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'A fundamental challenge to our understanding of biodiversity is to explain w
                  hy some groups of species undergo adaptive radiations, diversifying extensiv
                  ely into many and varied species, whereas others do not<sup>1,2</sup>. Both
                  extrinsic environmental factors (for example, resource availability, climate
                  ) and intrinsic lineage-specific traits (for example, behavioural or morphol
                  ogical traits, genetic architecture) influence diversification, but few stud
                  ies have addressed how such factors interact. Radiations of cichlid fishes i
                  n the African Great Lakes provide some of the most dramatic cases of species
                   diversification. However, most cichlid lineages in African lakes have not u
                  ndergone adaptive radiations. Here we compile data on cichlid colonization a
                  nd diversification in 46 African lakes, along with lake environmental featur
                  es and information about the traits of colonizing cichlid lineages, to inves
                  tigate why adaptive radiation does and does not occur. We find that extrinsi
                  c environmental factors related to ecological opportunity and intrinsic line
                  age-specific traits related to sexual selection both strongly influence whet
                  her cichlids radiate. Cichlids are more likely to radiate in deep lakes, in
                  regions with more incident solar radiation and in lakes where there has been
                   more time for diversification. Weak or negative associations between divers
                  ification and lake surface area indicate that cichlid speciation is not cons
                  trained by area, in contrast to diversification in many terrestrial taxa<sup
                  >3</sup>. Among the suite of intrinsic traits that we investigate, sexual di
                  chromatism, a surrogate for the intensity of sexual selection, is consistent
                  ly positively associated with diversification. Thus, for cichlids, it is the
                   coincidence between ecological opportunity and sexual selection that best p
                  redicts whether adaptive radiation will occur. These findings suggest that a
                  daptive radiation is predictable, but only when species traits and environme
                  ntal factors are jointly...
' (2012 chars) serialnumber => protected'0028-0836' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/nature11144' (19 chars) uid => protected6949 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6949 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected6949 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66714000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=6593, pid=124) originalId => protected6593 (integer) authors => protected'Maan,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;E.; Seehausen,&nbsp;O.' (41 chars) title => protected'Ecology, sexual selection and speciation' (40 chars) journal => protected'Ecology Letters' (15 chars) year => protected2011 (integer) volume => protected14 (integer) issue => protected'6' (1 chars) startpage => protected'591' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'602' (3 chars) categories => protected'adaptation; assortative mating; divergence; environmental heterogeneity; goo
                  d genes; magic trait; mate choice; natural selection; pleiotropy; reinforcem
                  ent
' (155 chars) description => protected'The spectacular diversity in sexually selected traits among animal taxa has
                  inspired the hypothesis that divergent sexual selection can drive speciation
                  . Unfortunately, speciation biologists often consider sexual selection in is
                  olation from natural selection, even though sexually selected traits evolve
                  in an ecological context: both preferences and traits are often subject to n
                  atural selection. Conversely, while behavioural ecologists may address ecolo
                  gical effects on sexual communication, they rarely measure the consequences
                  for population divergence. Herein, we review the empirical literature addres
                  sing the mechanisms by which natural selection and sexual selection can inte
                  ract during speciation. We find that convincing evidence for any of these sc
                  enarios is thin. However, the available data strongly support various divers
                  ifying effects that emerge from interactions between sexual selection and en
                  vironmental heterogeneity. We suggest that evaluating the evolutionary conse
                  quences of these effects requires a better integration of behavioural, ecolo
                  gical and evolutionary research.
' (1096 chars) serialnumber => protected'1461-023X' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01606.x' (32 chars) uid => protected6593 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6593 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected6593 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d6671f000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=6076, pid=124) originalId => protected6076 (integer) authors => protected'Seehausen,&nbsp;O.' (18 chars) title => protected'Ecology: Speciation affects ecosystems' (38 chars) journal => protected'Nature' (6 chars) year => protected2009 (integer) volume => protected458 (integer) issue => protected'7242' (4 chars) startpage => protected'1122' (4 chars) otherpage => protected'1123' (4 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'Evidence that speciation and adaptive radiation can change the properties of
                   an ecosystem is a reminder of the pressing need to integrate ecosystems sci
                  ence and evolutionary biology.
' (182 chars) serialnumber => protected'0028-0836' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/4581122a' (16 chars) uid => protected6076 (integer) _localizedUid => protected6076 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected6076 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d6671c000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=5827, pid=124) originalId => protected5827 (integer) authors => protected'Seehausen,&nbsp;O.; Terai,&nbsp;Y.; Magalhaes,&nbsp;I.&nbsp;S.; Carleton,&nb
                  sp;K.&nbsp;L.; Mrosso,&nbsp;H.&nbsp;D.&nbsp;J.; Miyagi,&nbsp;R.; van der Slu
                  ijs,&nbsp;I.; Schneider,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;V.; Maan,&nbsp;M.&nbsp;E.; Tachida,&nb
                  sp;H.; Imai,&nbsp;H.; Okada,&nbsp;N.
' (264 chars) title => protected'Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish' (48 chars) journal => protected'Nature' (6 chars) year => protected2008 (integer) volume => protected455 (integer) issue => protected'7285' (4 chars) startpage => protected'620' (3 chars) otherpage => protected'626' (3 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation t
                  hrough sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. He
                  re we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cich
                  lid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent evolut
                  ion in the cichlid visual system, demonstrate associated divergence in male
                  colouration and female preferences, and show subsequent differentiation at n
                  eutral loci, indicating reproductive isolation. Evidence is replicated in se
                  veral pairs of sympatric populations and species. Variation in the slope of
                  the environmental gradients explains variation in the progress towards speci
                  ation: speciation occurs on all but the steepest gradients. This is the most
                   complete demonstration so far of speciation through sensory drive without g
                  eographical isolation. Our results also provide a mechanistic explanation fo
                  r the collapse of cichlid fish species diversity during the anthropogenic eu
                  trophication of Lake Victoria.
' (1018 chars) serialnumber => protected'0028-0836' (9 chars) doi => protected'10.1038/nature07285' (19 chars) uid => protected5827 (integer) _localizedUid => protected5827 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected5827 (integer)modified pid => protected124 (integer)
0000000057d66719000000005f1defdf => Snowflake\Publications\Domain\Model\Publicationprototypepersistent entity (uid=5113, pid=124) originalId => protected5113 (integer) authors => protected'Joyce,&nbsp;D.&nbsp;A.; Lunt,&nbsp;D.&nbsp;H.; Bills,&nbsp;R.; Turner,&nbsp;
                  G.&nbsp;F.; Katongo,&nbsp;C.; Duftner,&nbsp;N.; Sturmbauer,&nbsp;C.; Seehaus
                  en,&nbsp;O.
' (163 chars) title => protected'An extant cichlid fish radiation emerged in an extinct Pleistocene lake' (71 chars) journal => protected'Nature' (6 chars) year => protected2005 (integer) volume => protected435 (integer) issue => protected'7038' (4 chars) startpage => protected'90' (2 chars) otherpage => protected'95' (2 chars) categories => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'The haplochromine cichlid fish of the East African Great Lakes represent som
                  e of the fastest and most species-rich adaptive radiations known<sup>1</sup>
                  , but rivers in most of Africa accommodate only a few morphologically simila
                  r species of haplochromine cichlid fish. This has been explained by the weal
                  th of ecological opportunity in large lakes compared with rivers. It is ther
                  efore surprising that the rivers of southern Africa harbour many, ecological
                  ly diverse haplochromines. Here we present genetic, morphological and biogeo
                  graphical evidence suggesting that these riverine cichlids are products of a
                   recent adaptive radiation in a large lake that dried up in the Holocene. Ha
                  plochromine species richness peaks steeply in an area for which geological d
                  ata reveal the historical existence of Lake palaeo-Makgadikgadi<sup>2,3</sup
                  >. The centre of this extinct lake is now a saltpan north of the Kalahari De
                  sert, but it once hosted a rapidly evolving fish species radiation, comparab
                  le in morphological diversity to that in the extant African Great Lakes. Imp
                  ortantly, this lake seeded all major river systems of southern Africa with e
                  cologically diverse cichlids. This discovery reveals how local evolutionary
                  processes operating during a short window of ecological opportunity can have
                   a major and lasting effect on biodiversity on a continental scale.
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            wissenschaften.ch\/organisations\/biodiversity\" target=\"_blank\">Forum Bio
            diversit\u00e4t<\/a> of the Swiss Academy of Sciences (SCNAT)<br>"},{"date":
            "2018 - present","text":"<p>Associate Professor of Aquatic Ecology, Departme
            nt of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich,
            Switzerland, <a href=\"https:\/\/www.altermattlab.ch\/\" target=\"_blank\">A
            ltermatt lab<\/a>\u00a0<\/p>"},{"date":"2011 - present","text":"Research Gro
            up Leader, Department of Aquatic Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic
             Science and Technology (Eawag), D\u00fcbendorf, Switzerland"},{"date":"2014
             - 2018","text":"<p>SNSF Professor, Department of Evolutionary Biology and E
            nvironmental Studies, University of Zurich, Switzerland\u00a0<\/p>"},{"date"
            :"2012 - 2014","text":"Lecturer at the Department of Environmental Systems S
            cience, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland"},{"
            date":"2009 - 2010","text":"Postdoctoral research fellow, Department of Envi
            ronmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, USA"},{"date"
            :"2007 - 2009","text":"Scientific collaborator at Hintermann & Weber AG, Rei
            nach, Switzerland"},{"date":"2005 - 2007","text":"Research assistant, Instit
            ute of Zoology, University of Basel, Switzerland"},{"date":"2004 -2007","tex
            t":"Ph.D., University of Basel, Switzerland"},{"date":"2004 - 2005","text":"
            Research assistant, Institute of Ecology, University of Fribourg, Switzerlan
            d"},{"date":"1998 - 2003","text":"Degree in Biology, University of Basel, Sw
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' (1608 chars) aboutme => protected'<p>To learn more about my lab and research, visit the homepage of the <a tar
            get="_blank" href="http://homepages.eawag.ch/~altermfl/Home.html">Altermatt
            lab</a> and my webpage at <a target="_blank" href="http://www.ieu.uzh.ch/en/
            staff/professors/altermatt.html">University of Zurich. </a>My professorship
            is supported by and is part of the <a href="https://www.gcb.uzh.ch/en.html"
            target="_blank">URPP Global Change and Biodiversity</a>.<br></p><p><br><span
             style="font-weight: bold;">Research</span><br>My research questions are loc
            ated at the intersection of ecology and evolution. I would like to understan
            d how species occur in space and time and how they interact. A focus of my w
            ork are the effects of species invasions and dispersal on natural communitie
            s. Metapopulation and metacommunity theory provide a conceptual framework fo
            r my research. I use both an experimental and a comparative approach, and cl
            osely collaborate with theoreticians. Depending on the question, I use a var
            iety of study systems, ranging from protozoans (microcosm-experiments), to a
            quatic invertebrates (field studies with crustaceans and freshwater insects)
            , and Lepidoptera. <br><br>My research falls into the following categories:<
            br>1)<span style="font-style: italic;"> Dispersal, invasive species and dive
            rsity in dendritic landscapes</span><br>River ecosystems are typical example
            s of dendritic networks. They are among the most diverse habitats on Earth.
            However, diversity in many rivers is declining due to invasive species and h
            abitat changes. Mathematical models predict that the dendritic structure aff
            ects diversity and invasion success, but only few empirical studies related
            network geometry to population dynamics. We study dispersal and invasions in
             dendritic habitats, using experimental protist microcosms and comparative d
            ata on invertebrates in Swiss rivers to get a better understanding. We also
            develop and use environmental DNA (eDNA) tools to monitor native and non-nat
            ive species in river net...
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                  von Spurenstoffen aus Kläranlagen
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protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected189 (integer) _localizedUid => protected189 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected189 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d66506000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=197, pid=21) 0000000057d66501000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=198, pid=21) 0000000057d66755000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=219, pid=21) 0000000057d66572000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=220, pid=21) 0000000057d65853000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=221, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-hungary@eawag.ch' (31 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected221 (integer) _localizedUid => protected221 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected221 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6585e000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=222, pid=21) title => protected'DLG_ADObject_Eco_ResGroup_Altermatt' (35 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected222 (integer) _localizedUid => protected222 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected222 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d65859000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=223, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Dept_Eco_ResGroup_Altermatt_rw' (34 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected223 (integer) _localizedUid => protected223 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected223 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d66746000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=269, pid=21) 0000000057d66741000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=271, pid=21) 0000000057d65844000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=425, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-brazil@eawag.ch' (30 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected425 (integer) _localizedUid => protected425 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected425 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6584f000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=450, pid=21) title => protected'stettbach@eawag-empa.ch' (23 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected450 (integer) _localizedUid => protected450 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected450 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6584a000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=457, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-new.zealand@eawag.ch' (35 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected457 (integer) _localizedUid => protected457 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected457 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659b5000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=458, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-malaysia@eawag.ch' (32 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected458 (integer) _localizedUid => protected458 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected458 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659b0000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=480, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-mexico@eawag.ch' (30 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected480 (integer) _localizedUid => protected480 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected480 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659bb000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=491, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Dept_ECO_Teaching_rw' (24 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected491 (integer) _localizedUid => protected491 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected491 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d666b6000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=545, pid=21) 0000000057d666b1000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=546, pid=21) 0000000057d666a7000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=550, pid=21) 0000000057d666a2000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=551, pid=21) 0000000057d666a8000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=554, pid=21) 0000000057d66699000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=562, pid=21) 0000000057d66684000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=563, pid=21) 0000000057d659a6000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=564, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-slovenia@eawag.ch' (32 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected564 (integer) _localizedUid => protected564 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected564 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659a1000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=566, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-saudi.arabia@eawag.ch' (36 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected566 (integer) _localizedUid => protected566 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected566 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659ac000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=573, pid=21) title => protected'switchdrive.users@eawag.ch' (26 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected573 (integer) _localizedUid => protected573 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected573 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d65997000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=595, pid=21) title => protected'foresight2030@eawag.ch' (22 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected595 (integer) _localizedUid => protected595 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected595 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d65992000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=652, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Project_Programm_FG_CH_ALL_rw' (33 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected652 (integer) _localizedUid => protected652 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected652 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6599d000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=680, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Project_EcoImpact_ALL_rw' (28 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected680 (integer) _localizedUid => protected680 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected680 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d65998000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=683, pid=21) title => protected'cifs-depts.ECO@eawag.ch' (23 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected683 (integer) _localizedUid => protected683 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected683 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d666dd000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=729, pid=21) 0000000057d65983000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=739, pid=21) title => protected'collaborations-tajikistan@eawag.ch' (34 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected739 (integer) _localizedUid => protected739 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected739 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6598e000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=786, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Dept_eco_SDIR_Teaching_rw-explicit' (38 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected786 (integer) _localizedUid => protected786 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected786 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d65989000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=869, pid=21) title => protected'citizen-science@eawag.ch' (24 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected869 (integer) _localizedUid => protected869 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected869 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659f4000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=889, pid=21) title => protected'GPO_Homedir_01' (14 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected889 (integer) _localizedUid => protected889 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected889 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659ff000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=915, pid=21) title => protected'datascience@eawag.ch' (20 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected915 (integer) _localizedUid => protected915 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected915 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659fa000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=979, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Dept_eco-adm_SDIR_Groupleader_rw-explicit' (45 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected979 (integer) _localizedUid => protected979 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected979 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659e5000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=994, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Webstatic_www_altermfl_ALL_rw' (33 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected994 (integer) _localizedUid => protected994 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected994 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659e0000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1048, pid=21) title => protected'Building DU BU' (14 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1048 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1048 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1048 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659eb000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1081, pid=21) title => protected'flyaware@eawag.ch' (17 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1081 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1081 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1081 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659d6000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1085, pid=21) title => protected'AAC_Eawag_Department_ECO' (24 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1085 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1085 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1085 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d6663f000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=1091, pid=21) 0000000057d659d1000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1143, pid=21) title => protected'future@eawag.ch' (15 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1143 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1143 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1143 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659dc000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1144, pid=21) title => protected'ACL_Dept_Dir-extern_SDIR_EAWAG_FUTURE_Taskforce_rw' (50 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1144 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1144 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1144 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659c7000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1145, pid=21) title => protected'adobe.users@eawag.ch' (20 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) uid => protected1145 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1145 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1145 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659c2000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1153, pid=21) title => protected'natelgo.subscribers@eawag.ch' (28 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedNULL uid => protected1153 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1153 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1153 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659cd000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1191, pid=21) title => protected'MBX_Eawag_La-Bu-Users_Calendar_only' (35 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedNULL uid => protected1191 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1191 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1191 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d659ca000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entity (uid=1198, pid=21) title => protected'bgb' (3 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) description => protected'' (0 chars) subgroup => protectedNULL uid => protected1198 (integer) _localizedUid => protected1198 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected1198 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer) 0000000057d66625000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=1206, pid=21) 0000000057d66622000000005f1defdf => TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Domain\Model\FrontendUserGroupprototypepersistent entitysee above (uid=1208, pid=21) name => protected'Florian Altermatt' (17 chars) firstName => protected'Florian' (7 chars) middleName => protected'' (0 chars) lastName => protected'Altermatt' (9 chars) address => protected'Überlandstrasse 133' (20 chars) telephone => protected'+41 58 765 5592' (15 chars) fax => protected'+41 58 765 5802' (15 chars) email => protected'florian.altermatt@eawag.ch' (26 chars) lockToDomain => protected'' (0 chars) title => protected'Prof. Dr.' (9 chars) zip => protected'8600' (4 chars) city => protected'Dübendorf' (10 chars) country => protected'Schweiz' (7 chars) www => protected'' (0 chars) company => protected'Eawag' (5 chars) image => protectedTYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Persistence\ObjectStorageprototypeobject (empty) lastlogin => protectedDateTimeprototypeobject (2000-01-01T00:00:00+01:00, 946681200)modified uid => protected397 (integer) _localizedUid => protected397 (integer)modified _languageUid => protectedNULL _versionedUid => protected397 (integer)modified pid => protected21 (integer)
profileImage => 'fileadmin/user_upload/tx_userprofiles/profileImages/altermfl.jpg' (64 chars) uid => '397' (3 chars)

Author

Bernhard Wehrli

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Ole Seehausen

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Florian Altermatt

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